Standard Guide for Acute Toxicity Test with the Rotifer Brachionus
Automatische name übersetzung:
Standard-Handbuch für Akuter Toxizitätstest mit dem Räder Brachionus
NORM herausgegeben am 1.12.2012
Bezeichnung normen: ASTM E1440-91(2012)
Ausgabedatum normen: 1.12.2012
Zahl der Seiten: 8
Gewicht ca.: 24 g (0.05 Pfund)
Land: Amerikanische technische Norm
Kategorie: Technische Normen ASTM
acute toxicity, cysts, freshwater, invertebrate, LC50, marine, rotifers, toxicity test, ICS Number Code 11.100.99 (Other standards related to laboratory medicine)
|Significance and Use|
5.1 An important goal of aquatic toxicology is to determine the effects of toxic compounds on species that play a central role in aquatic communities. Rotifers have a major impact on several important ecological processes in freshwater and coastal marine environments. As filter-feeders on phytoplankton and bacteria, rotifers exert substantial grazing pressure that at times exceeds that of the larger crustacean zooplankton 5.2 In addition to their important ecological role in aquatic communities, rotifers are attractive organisms for toxicological studies because an extensive database exists on the basic biology of this group. Techniques have been published for the culture of many rotifer species (3, 19). The rotifer life cycle is well defined 5.3 Toxicity tests with rotifers of the genus Brachionus are more easily performed than with many other aquatic animals because of their rapid reproduction, short generation times, sensitivity 5.4 The test described here is fast, easy to execute, sensitive, and cost-effective. Obtaining test animals from cysts greatly reduces some of the major problems in routine aquatic toxicological testing such as the limited availability of test animals and the inconsistency of sensitivity over time. Rotifers hatched from cysts are of similar age and are physiologically uniform, thus eliminating pre-test conditions as a source of variability in the toxicity test. Cysts can be shipped inexpensively world-wide, allowing all laboratories to use standard, genetically defined strains that have been calibrated with reference toxicants. The convenience of an off-the-shelf source of test animals that require no pre-conditioning is likely to permit new applications of aquatic toxicity tests.
5.5 Sensitivity to toxicants is compound and species specific, but the sensitivity of B. calyciflorus is generally comparable to that of Daphnia (37).
5.6 Rotifer cysts are commercially available, but they can also be obtained from natural populations and from laboratory cultures. Techniques for rotifer cyst production in laboratory populations have been described 1.1 This guide describes procedures for obtaining laboratory data concerning the acute toxicity of chemicals and aqueous effluents released into fresh, estuarine, or marine waters. Acute toxicity is measured by exposing Brachionus newly hatched from cysts to a series of toxicant concentrations under controlled conditions. This guide describes a test for using 1.2 Modifications of these procedures might be justified by special needs or circumstances. Although using appropriate procedures is more important than following prescribed procedures, the results of tests conducted using modified procedures might not be comparable to rotifer acute tests that follow the protocol described here. Comparison of the results using modified procedures might provide useful information concerning new concepts and procedures for conducting acute toxicity tests on chemicals and aqueous effluents.
1.3 This guide is organized as follows:
1.4 These procedures are applicable to most chemicals, either individually or in formulations, commercial products, or mixtures. This guide can also be used to conduct investigations of the effects on rotifer survival of pH, hardness, and salinity and on materials such as aqueous effluents, leachates, oils, particulate matter, sediments, and surface waters. This guide might not be appropriate for materials with high oxygen demand, with high volatility, subject to rapid biological or chemical transformation, or that readily sorb to test chambers.
1.5 This standard does not
purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated
with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard
to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine
the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests
on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and
Amphibians Practice for Use of the International
System of Units (SI) (the Modernized Metric System) Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests
on Aqueous Ambient Samples and Effluents with Fishes,
Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians Terminology Relating to Biological
Effects and Environmental Fate
Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Practice for Use of the International System of Units (SI) (the Modernized Metric System)
Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Aqueous Ambient Samples and Effluents with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
Terminology Relating to Biological Effects and Environmental Fate
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