Standard Test Method for Measurement of Creep Crack Growth Times in Metals (Includes all amendments and changes 7/29/2020).Name übersetzen
NORM herausgegeben am 15.11.2019
Bezeichnung normen: ASTM E1457-19e1
Ausgabedatum normen: 15.11.2019
Zahl der Seiten: 29
Gewicht ca.: 87 g (0.19 Pfund)
Land: Amerikanische technische Norm
Kategorie: Technische Normen ASTM
ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals)
|Significance and Use|
6.1 Creep crack growth rate expressed as a function of the steady state C* or K characterizes the resistance of a material to crack growth under conditions of extensive creep deformation or under brittle creep conditions. Background information on the rationale for employing the fracture mechanics approach in the analyses of creep crack growth data is given in 6.2 Aggressive environments at high temperatures can significantly affect the creep crack growth behavior. Attention must be given to the proper selection and control of temperature and environment in research studies and in generation of design data.
6.2.1 Expressing CCI time, t0.2 and CCG rate, da/dt as a function of an appropriate fracture mechanics related parameter generally provides results that are independent of specimen size and planar geometry for the same stress state at the crack tip for the range of geometries and sizes presented in this document (see ). Thus, the appropriate correlation will enable exchange and comparison of data obtained from a variety of specimen configurations and loading conditions. Moreover, this feature enables creep crack growth data to be utilized in the design and evaluation of engineering structures operated at elevated temperatures where creep deformation is a concern. The concept of similitude is assumed, implying that cracks of differing sizes subjected to the same nominal C*(t), Ct, or K will advance by equal increments of crack extension per unit time, provided the conditions for the validity for the specific crack growth rate relating parameter are met. See for details.
6.2.2 The effects of crack tip constraint arising from variations in specimen size, geometry and material ductility can influence t0.2 and da/dt. For example, crack growth rates at the same value of C*(t), Ct in creep-ductile materials generally increases with increasing thickness. It is therefore necessary to keep the component dimensions in mind when selecting specimen thickness, geometry and size for laboratory testing.
6.2.3 Different geometries as mentioned in may have different size requirements for obtaining geometry and size independent creep crack growth rate data. It is therefore necessary to account for these factors when comparing da/dt data for different geometries or when predicting component life using laboratory data. For these reasons, the scope of this standard is restricted to the use of specimens shown in and the validation criteria for these specimens are specified in . However if specimens other than the C(T) geometry are used for generating creep crack growth data, then the da/dt data obtained should, if possible, be compared against test data derived from the standard C(T) tests in order to validate the data.
6.2.4 Creep cracks have been observed to grow at different rates at the beginning of tests compared with the rates at equivalent C*(t), Ct or K values for cracks that have sustained previous creep crack extension 6.3 Results from this test method can be used as follows:
6.3.1 Establish predictive models for crack incubation periods and growth using analytical and numerical techniques 6.3.2 Establish the influence of creep crack development and growth on remaining component life under conditions of sustained loading at elevated temperatures wherein creeps deformation might occur Note 1: For such cases, the experimental data must be generated under representative loading and stress-state conditions and combined with appropriate fracture or plastic collapse criterion, defect characterization data, and stress analysis information.
6.3.3 Establish material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications.
6.3.4 Establish, in quantitative terms, the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading variables on creep crack growth life.
6.4 The results obtained from this test method are designed for crack dominant regimes of creep failure and should not be applied to cracks in structures with wide-spread creep damage which effectively reduces the crack extension to a collective damage region. Localized damage in a small zone around the crack tip is permissible, but not in a zone that is comparable in size to the crack size or the remaining ligament size. Creep damage for the purposes here is defined by the presence of grain boundary cavitation. Creep crack growth is defined primarily by the growth of intergranular time-dependent cracks. Crack tip branching and deviation of the crack growth directions can occur if the wrong choice of specimen size, side-grooving and geometry is made (see ). The criteria for geometry selection are discussed in .
1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep crack initiation (CCI) and creep crack growth (CCG) in metals at elevated temperatures using pre-cracked specimens subjected to static or quasi-static loading conditions. The solutions presented in this test method are validated for base material (i.e. homogenous properties) and mixed base/weld material with inhomogeneous microstructures and creep properties. The CCI time, 1.1.1 The choice of the crack growth correlating parameter C*, C*(t), Ct, or K depends on the material creep properties, geometry and size of the specimen. Two types of material behavior are generally observed during creep crack growth tests; creep-ductile 1.1.2 In any one test, two regions of crack growth behavior may be present (. The initial transient region where elastic strains dominate and creep damage develops and in the steady state region where crack grows proportionally to time. Steady-state creep crack growth rate behavior is covered by this standard. In addition, specific recommendations are made in , ) as to how the transient region should be treated in terms of an initial crack growth period. During steady state, a unique correlation exists between 1.1.3 In creep ductile materials, extensive creep occurs when the entire un-cracked ligament undergoes creep deformation. Such conditions are distinct from the conditions of small-scale creep and transition creep (. In the case of extensive creep, the region dominated by creep deformation is significant in size in comparison to both the crack length and the uncracked ligament sizes. In small-scale-creep only a small region of the un-cracked ligament local to the crack tip experiences creep deformation. )
1.1.4 The creep crack growth rate in the extensive creep region is correlated by the C*(t)-integral. The Ct parameter correlates the creep crack growth rate in the small-scale creep and the transition creep regions and reduces, by definition, to C*(t) in the extensive creep region 1.1.5 An engineering definition of an initial crack extension size δai is used in order to quantify the initial period of crack development. This distance is given as 0.2 mm. It has been shown 1.1.6 The recommended specimens for CCI and CCG testing is the standard compact tension specimen C(T) (see ) which is pin-loaded in tension under constant loading conditions. The clevis setup is shown in (see for details). Additional geometries which are valid for testing in this procedure are shown in . These are the C-ring in tension CS(T), middle crack specimen in tension M(T), single edge notched tension SEN(T), single edge notched bend SEN(B), and double edge notched tension DEN(T). In , the specimens’ side-grooving-position for measuring displacement at the force-line displacement (FLD) and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) and positions for the electric potential drop (EPD) input and output leads are shown. Recommended loading for the tension specimens is pin-loading. The configurations, size range are given in of , 1.1.7 The state-of-stress at the crack tip may have an influence on the creep crack growth behavior and can cause crack-front tunneling in plane-sided specimens. Specimen size, geometry, crack length, test duration and creep properties will affect the state-of-stress at the crack tip and are important factors in determining crack growth rate. A recommended size range of test specimens and their side-grooving are given in in . It has been shown that for this range the cracking rates do not vary for a range of materials and loading conditions 1.1.8 Material inhomogeneity, residual stresses and material degradation at temperature, specimen geometry and low-force long duration tests (mainly greater that one year) can influence the rate of crack initiation and growth properties 1.1.9 Stress relaxation of the residual stresses due to creep and crack extension should also be taken into consideration. No specific allowance is included in this standard for dealing with these variations. However the method of calculating 1.1.10 Specimen configurations and sizes other than those listed in which are tested under constant force will involve further validity requirements. This is done by comparing data from recommended test configurations. Nevertheless, use of other geometries are applicable by this method provided data are compared to data obtained from standard specimens (as identified in ) and the appropriate correlating parameters have been validated.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
|2. Referenced Documents|
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